On the basis of topic expansions and the needs of a developing society, the CBSE class 12 English Core syllabus has indeed been modified and updated. The program assists students in applying critical knowledge to solve everyday problems and find innovative solutions. It improves the student's ability to comprehend real-world challenges.

The suggested class 12 English Core syllabus covers a wide range of topics and various concepts which are needed for the survival of an individual in today's world and ideas that are necessary for a student's overall growth.

- REAL NUMBER â€“ (15) Periods

- Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic â€“ statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of irrationality of Root 2, 3 & 5

- POLYNOMIALS â€“ (8) Periods

Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials.

â€ - PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES â€“ (15) Periods

Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution, consistency/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically â€“ by substitution, by elimination. Simple situational problems. - QUADRATIC EQUATIONS â€“ (15) Periods

Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a â‰ 0). Solutions of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be incorporated. - ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS â€“ (10) Periods

Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first nth terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.

- Coordinate Geometry â€“ (15) PeriodsReview: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division).

- TRIANGLES â€“ (15) Periods

Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.

- (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
- (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
- (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
- (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
- (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
- CIRCLES â€“ (10) Periods

Tangent to a circle at, point of contact

- (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
- (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.

- INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY â€“ (10) Periods

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0o and 90o. Values of the trigonometric ratios of 30Â°, 45Â°, and 60Â°.. Relationships between the ratios.

- TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES â€“ (15) Periods

Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given.

- HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES: Angle of elevation, Angle of Depression. (10) Periods

Simple problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30Â°, 45Â°, and 60Â°.

- AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES â€“ (12) Periods

Area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60Â°, 90Â° and 120Â° only. - SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES â€“ (12) Periods

Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones.

- STATISTICS â€“ (18) Periods

Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). - PROBABILITY â€“ (10) Periods

Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on finding the probability of an event

â€

**The overall objectives of the English Core curriculum for class 12 are to help students centralize the abstract and verbal knowledge and skills acquired at the top initial level; gain an understanding and recognition of various parts of speech, tenses, underlying teachings, abstract thinking, especially through one's ambition and visual imagery.**

- Students could also look into the CBSE's class 12 subjects study material 2022-23 and prepare accordingly.
- To understand ideas and prepare for board exams, students can consult the Cbse 12th class syllabus 2022-23.
- The new marking scheme has been incorporated into the CBSE 12th syllabus.
- All of the units in the CBSE solutions for class 12 are equally significant.